Up on that website

spaceplasma:

The Moon’s Fragile Atmosphere

The moon orbits the earth with a period of four weeks ( a month) and during the orbit it always has the same side facing the earth. So this means that on the moon there is day and night, but they are both two weeks long instead of 24 hours.
The Moon’s daylight is brighter and harsher than the Earth’s. There is no atmosphere to scatter the light, no clouds to shade it, and no ozone layer to block the sunburning ultraviolet light. However, there is a very, very thin layer of gases on the lunar surface that can almost be called an atmosphere. Technically, it’s considered a surface boundary exosphere.
One of the critical differences between the atmospheres of Earth and the moon is how atmospheric molecules move. Here in the dense atmosphere at the surface of Earth, the molecules’ motion is dominated by collisions between the molecules.The exosphere is so thin that molecules in the lunar exosphere almost never collide with each other. During the lunar night, the Moon’s exosphere mostly falls to the ground. When sunlight returns, the solar wind kicks up new particles to replenish the exosphere.
The intense ultraviolet sunlight kicks electrons off particles in the lunar soil, giving those particles an electric charge that can cause them to levitate. Ambient electric fields lift these charged dust particles as high as kilometers above the surface, forming an important part of the exosphere. Moon dust wrecked havoc with the Apollo spacesuits, which were nearly threadbare by the time they returned to Earth. Levitating dust can get into equipment, spacesuits, and computers, causing damage and shortening the hardware’s useful life. Knowing how much dust is floating around in the exosphere and how it behaves will help engineers design next-generation lunar hardware.

Credit: NASA
spaceplasma:

The Moon’s Fragile Atmosphere

The moon orbits the earth with a period of four weeks ( a month) and during the orbit it always has the same side facing the earth. So this means that on the moon there is day and night, but they are both two weeks long instead of 24 hours.
The Moon’s daylight is brighter and harsher than the Earth’s. There is no atmosphere to scatter the light, no clouds to shade it, and no ozone layer to block the sunburning ultraviolet light. However, there is a very, very thin layer of gases on the lunar surface that can almost be called an atmosphere. Technically, it’s considered a surface boundary exosphere.
One of the critical differences between the atmospheres of Earth and the moon is how atmospheric molecules move. Here in the dense atmosphere at the surface of Earth, the molecules’ motion is dominated by collisions between the molecules.The exosphere is so thin that molecules in the lunar exosphere almost never collide with each other. During the lunar night, the Moon’s exosphere mostly falls to the ground. When sunlight returns, the solar wind kicks up new particles to replenish the exosphere.
The intense ultraviolet sunlight kicks electrons off particles in the lunar soil, giving those particles an electric charge that can cause them to levitate. Ambient electric fields lift these charged dust particles as high as kilometers above the surface, forming an important part of the exosphere. Moon dust wrecked havoc with the Apollo spacesuits, which were nearly threadbare by the time they returned to Earth. Levitating dust can get into equipment, spacesuits, and computers, causing damage and shortening the hardware’s useful life. Knowing how much dust is floating around in the exosphere and how it behaves will help engineers design next-generation lunar hardware.

Credit: NASA
spaceplasma:

The Moon’s Fragile Atmosphere

The moon orbits the earth with a period of four weeks ( a month) and during the orbit it always has the same side facing the earth. So this means that on the moon there is day and night, but they are both two weeks long instead of 24 hours.
The Moon’s daylight is brighter and harsher than the Earth’s. There is no atmosphere to scatter the light, no clouds to shade it, and no ozone layer to block the sunburning ultraviolet light. However, there is a very, very thin layer of gases on the lunar surface that can almost be called an atmosphere. Technically, it’s considered a surface boundary exosphere.
One of the critical differences between the atmospheres of Earth and the moon is how atmospheric molecules move. Here in the dense atmosphere at the surface of Earth, the molecules’ motion is dominated by collisions between the molecules.The exosphere is so thin that molecules in the lunar exosphere almost never collide with each other. During the lunar night, the Moon’s exosphere mostly falls to the ground. When sunlight returns, the solar wind kicks up new particles to replenish the exosphere.
The intense ultraviolet sunlight kicks electrons off particles in the lunar soil, giving those particles an electric charge that can cause them to levitate. Ambient electric fields lift these charged dust particles as high as kilometers above the surface, forming an important part of the exosphere. Moon dust wrecked havoc with the Apollo spacesuits, which were nearly threadbare by the time they returned to Earth. Levitating dust can get into equipment, spacesuits, and computers, causing damage and shortening the hardware’s useful life. Knowing how much dust is floating around in the exosphere and how it behaves will help engineers design next-generation lunar hardware.

Credit: NASA
spaceplasma:

The Moon’s Fragile Atmosphere

The moon orbits the earth with a period of four weeks ( a month) and during the orbit it always has the same side facing the earth. So this means that on the moon there is day and night, but they are both two weeks long instead of 24 hours.
The Moon’s daylight is brighter and harsher than the Earth’s. There is no atmosphere to scatter the light, no clouds to shade it, and no ozone layer to block the sunburning ultraviolet light. However, there is a very, very thin layer of gases on the lunar surface that can almost be called an atmosphere. Technically, it’s considered a surface boundary exosphere.
One of the critical differences between the atmospheres of Earth and the moon is how atmospheric molecules move. Here in the dense atmosphere at the surface of Earth, the molecules’ motion is dominated by collisions between the molecules.The exosphere is so thin that molecules in the lunar exosphere almost never collide with each other. During the lunar night, the Moon’s exosphere mostly falls to the ground. When sunlight returns, the solar wind kicks up new particles to replenish the exosphere.
The intense ultraviolet sunlight kicks electrons off particles in the lunar soil, giving those particles an electric charge that can cause them to levitate. Ambient electric fields lift these charged dust particles as high as kilometers above the surface, forming an important part of the exosphere. Moon dust wrecked havoc with the Apollo spacesuits, which were nearly threadbare by the time they returned to Earth. Levitating dust can get into equipment, spacesuits, and computers, causing damage and shortening the hardware’s useful life. Knowing how much dust is floating around in the exosphere and how it behaves will help engineers design next-generation lunar hardware.

Credit: NASA
spaceplasma:

The Moon’s Fragile Atmosphere

The moon orbits the earth with a period of four weeks ( a month) and during the orbit it always has the same side facing the earth. So this means that on the moon there is day and night, but they are both two weeks long instead of 24 hours.
The Moon’s daylight is brighter and harsher than the Earth’s. There is no atmosphere to scatter the light, no clouds to shade it, and no ozone layer to block the sunburning ultraviolet light. However, there is a very, very thin layer of gases on the lunar surface that can almost be called an atmosphere. Technically, it’s considered a surface boundary exosphere.
One of the critical differences between the atmospheres of Earth and the moon is how atmospheric molecules move. Here in the dense atmosphere at the surface of Earth, the molecules’ motion is dominated by collisions between the molecules.The exosphere is so thin that molecules in the lunar exosphere almost never collide with each other. During the lunar night, the Moon’s exosphere mostly falls to the ground. When sunlight returns, the solar wind kicks up new particles to replenish the exosphere.
The intense ultraviolet sunlight kicks electrons off particles in the lunar soil, giving those particles an electric charge that can cause them to levitate. Ambient electric fields lift these charged dust particles as high as kilometers above the surface, forming an important part of the exosphere. Moon dust wrecked havoc with the Apollo spacesuits, which were nearly threadbare by the time they returned to Earth. Levitating dust can get into equipment, spacesuits, and computers, causing damage and shortening the hardware’s useful life. Knowing how much dust is floating around in the exosphere and how it behaves will help engineers design next-generation lunar hardware.

Credit: NASA
spaceplasma:

The Moon’s Fragile Atmosphere

The moon orbits the earth with a period of four weeks ( a month) and during the orbit it always has the same side facing the earth. So this means that on the moon there is day and night, but they are both two weeks long instead of 24 hours.
The Moon’s daylight is brighter and harsher than the Earth’s. There is no atmosphere to scatter the light, no clouds to shade it, and no ozone layer to block the sunburning ultraviolet light. However, there is a very, very thin layer of gases on the lunar surface that can almost be called an atmosphere. Technically, it’s considered a surface boundary exosphere.
One of the critical differences between the atmospheres of Earth and the moon is how atmospheric molecules move. Here in the dense atmosphere at the surface of Earth, the molecules’ motion is dominated by collisions between the molecules.The exosphere is so thin that molecules in the lunar exosphere almost never collide with each other. During the lunar night, the Moon’s exosphere mostly falls to the ground. When sunlight returns, the solar wind kicks up new particles to replenish the exosphere.
The intense ultraviolet sunlight kicks electrons off particles in the lunar soil, giving those particles an electric charge that can cause them to levitate. Ambient electric fields lift these charged dust particles as high as kilometers above the surface, forming an important part of the exosphere. Moon dust wrecked havoc with the Apollo spacesuits, which were nearly threadbare by the time they returned to Earth. Levitating dust can get into equipment, spacesuits, and computers, causing damage and shortening the hardware’s useful life. Knowing how much dust is floating around in the exosphere and how it behaves will help engineers design next-generation lunar hardware.

Credit: NASA

spaceplasma:

The Moon’s Fragile Atmosphere

The moon orbits the earth with a period of four weeks ( a month) and during the orbit it always has the same side facing the earth. So this means that on the moon there is day and night, but they are both two weeks long instead of 24 hours.

The Moon’s daylight is brighter and harsher than the Earth’s. There is no atmosphere to scatter the light, no clouds to shade it, and no ozone layer to block the sunburning ultraviolet light. However, there is a very, very thin layer of gases on the lunar surface that can almost be called an atmosphere. Technically, it’s considered a surface boundary exosphere.

One of the critical differences between the atmospheres of Earth and the moon is how atmospheric molecules move. Here in the dense atmosphere at the surface of Earth, the molecules’ motion is dominated by collisions between the molecules.The exosphere is so thin that molecules in the lunar exosphere almost never collide with each other. During the lunar night, the Moon’s exosphere mostly falls to the ground. When sunlight returns, the solar wind kicks up new particles to replenish the exosphere.

The intense ultraviolet sunlight kicks electrons off particles in the lunar soil, giving those particles an electric charge that can cause them to levitate. Ambient electric fields lift these charged dust particles as high as kilometers above the surface, forming an important part of the exosphere. Moon dust wrecked havoc with the Apollo spacesuits, which were nearly threadbare by the time they returned to Earth. Levitating dust can get into equipment, spacesuits, and computers, causing damage and shortening the hardware’s useful life. Knowing how much dust is floating around in the exosphere and how it behaves will help engineers design next-generation lunar hardware.

Credit: NASA


pennyfornasa:

For thirty years, a generation of astronauts embarked on a wide range of dynamic missions utilizing the five shuttles that comprised the Space Transportation System (STS). As humanity’s first reusable spacecraft, these robust shuttles provided the means for two of NASA’s finest achievements — launching the Hubble Space Telescope and constructing the International Space Station. However, according to a space.com article, the space shuttle program has had significant cultural impacts as well."One of the greatest legacies of the space shuttle has been its ability to open space to more and different types of people," stated Robert Pearlman, editor of collectSPACE.com. "Many nations saw their first citizen enter space aboard the shuttle, including Canada, Mexico, Japan, Australia, Saudi Arabia and Spain. The first American female and African-American entered space on the shuttle. The first American of Jewish descent and the oldest person to ever enter space flew on the shuttle, too."On July 8th, 2011, the launch of STS-135 proved historic, as it was the final flight of the Space Shuttle program, with Atlantis being the mode of transportation. Lasting 12 days, 18 hours, and 28 minutes, STS-135 was an ISS supply mission, with a spacewalk scheduled on the fifth day for ISS maintenance. After successfully completing their mission objectives, the crew prepared Atlantis for its 33rd — and final — reentry and landing procedure, which occurred on July 21st. By the end of this mission, Atlantis racked up some impressive stats. The shuttle orbited the Earth 4,848 times, and in doing so, traveled nearly 126 million miles — more than 525 times the distance from the Earth to the Moon. After three decades and 14 satellite deployments, Atlantis was the workhorse of the shuttle fleet. STS-135 CAPCOM operator Barry Wilmore recognized the importance of Atlantis’ final Florida landing."We congratulate you, Atlantis, as well as the thousands of passionate individuals across this great space faring nation who truly empowered this incredible spacecraft which has inspired millions around the globe."Since the completion of STS-135 three years ago, NASA still remains unable to send Americans to space, and must rely upon the Russian Space Agency, Roscosmosfor passage to the ISS. Hoping that an American-based commercial alternative would be available by 2015 under the Commercial Crew Program (CCP), NASA had an original contract with Roscosmos at roughly $62.7 million per seat aboard a Soyuz spacecraft. However, because of the failure on Congress’ part to fully fund the CCP at optimum levels, that goal was made impossible. Still requiring a means to transport Americans to and from the ISS, on April 30th, 2013, NASA was forced to extend that contract until 2017. This extension also comes at a price. The price of one Soyuz seat now requires NASA to pay Roscosmos approximately $8 million more, at $70.7 million/seat. Tell Congress that you support fully funding the Commercial Crew Program and that you want to end NASA’s dependence on expensive Soyuz trips: http://www.penny4nasa.org/take-action/ Sources:1. Space Shuttle’s Lasting Legacy: 30 Years of Historic Featshttp://goo.gl/30Ktma2. NASA to Pay $70 Million a Seat to Fly Astronauts on Soyuzhttp://goo.gl/bQKAYImage Credit: NASA View Larger

pennyfornasa:

For thirty years, a generation of astronauts embarked on a wide range of dynamic missions utilizing the five shuttles that comprised the Space Transportation System (STS). As humanity’s first reusable spacecraft, these robust shuttles provided the means for two of NASA’s finest achievements — launching the Hubble Space Telescope and constructing the International Space Station. However, according to a space.com article, the space shuttle program has had significant cultural impacts as well.

"One of the greatest legacies of the space shuttle has been its ability to open space to more and different types of people," stated Robert Pearlman, editor of collectSPACE.com. "Many nations saw their first citizen enter space aboard the shuttle, including Canada, Mexico, Japan, Australia, Saudi Arabia and Spain. The first American female and African-American entered space on the shuttle. The first American of Jewish descent and the oldest person to ever enter space flew on the shuttle, too."

On July 8th, 2011, the launch of STS-135 proved historic, as it was the final flight of the Space Shuttle program, with Atlantis being the mode of transportation. Lasting 12 days, 18 hours, and 28 minutes, STS-135 was an ISS supply mission, with a spacewalk scheduled on the fifth day for ISS maintenance. After successfully completing their mission objectives, the crew prepared Atlantis for its 33rd — and final — reentry and landing procedure, which occurred on July 21st. By the end of this mission, Atlantis racked up some impressive stats. The shuttle orbited the Earth 4,848 times, and in doing so, traveled nearly 126 million miles — more than 525 times the distance from the Earth to the Moon. After three decades and 14 satellite deployments, Atlantis was the workhorse of the shuttle fleet. STS-135 CAPCOM operator Barry Wilmore recognized the importance of Atlantis’ final Florida landing.

"We congratulate you, Atlantis, as well as the thousands of passionate individuals across this great space faring nation who truly empowered this incredible spacecraft which has inspired millions around the globe."

Since the completion of STS-135 three years ago, NASA still remains unable to send Americans to space, and must rely upon the Russian Space Agency, Roscosmosfor passage to the ISS. Hoping that an American-based commercial alternative would be available by 2015 under the Commercial Crew Program (CCP), NASA had an original contract with Roscosmos at roughly $62.7 million per seat aboard a Soyuz spacecraft. However, because of the failure on Congress’ part to fully fund the CCP at optimum levels, that goal was made impossible. Still requiring a means to transport Americans to and from the ISS, on April 30th, 2013, NASA was forced to extend that contract until 2017. 

This extension also comes at a price. The price of one Soyuz seat now requires NASA to pay Roscosmos approximately $8 million more, at $70.7 million/seat. Tell Congress that you support fully funding the Commercial Crew Program and that you want to end NASA’s dependence on expensive Soyuz trips: 

http://www.penny4nasa.org/take-action/ 

Sources:
1. Space Shuttle’s Lasting Legacy: 30 Years of Historic Feats
http://goo.gl/30Ktma
2. NASA to Pay $70 Million a Seat to Fly Astronauts on Soyuz
http://goo.gl/bQKAY

Image Credit: NASA